Self-Help Speech Therapy Books 

 Empowering parents to help their children communicate more effectively


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The Cow Says Moo  

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Resources for Speech Development

Typical Speech Development

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Signs and Symptoms of a Speech Delay 1


The warning signs of early speech delay are categorized into age related milestones, beginning at the age of 12 months and continuing through early adolescence.


At the age of 12 months, there is cause for concern if the child is not able to do the following:


  • Using gestures such as waving good-bye and pointing at objects
  • Practicing the use of several different consonant sounds
  • Vocalizing or communicating needs

Between the ages of 15 and 18 months children are at a higher risk for speech delay if they are displaying the following:


  • Not saying “momma” and “dada”
  • Not reciprocating when told “no,” “hello,” and “bye”
  • Does not have a one to three word vocabulary at 12 months and up to 15 words by 18 months
  • Is unable to identify body parts
  • Displaying difficulties imitating sounds and actions
  • Shows preference to gestures over verbalization


Additional signs of speech delay after the age of 2 years and up to the age of 4 include the following:


  • Inability to spontaneously produce words and phrases
  • Inability to follow simple directions and commands
  • Cannot make a two word connections
  • Lacks consonant sounds at the beginning or end of words
  • Is difficult to understand by close family members
  • Is not able to display the tasks of common household objects
  • Is unable to form simple 2 to 3 word sentences


1 Reposted from Wikipedia



Is Your Child Speech Delayed?

Does Your Pediatrician Use Screening Tools?

Causes of a Speech Delay 1


At times, speech delay and impairment is caused by a physical disruption in the mouth such as a deformed frenulum, lips, or palate. If the motion or ability to form words and appropriate sounds is disrupted, the child may be slow to pick up words and lack the ability to shape their mouth and tongue in the formation of words.  Other more serious concerns are those that can be caused by oral-motor issues. Oral-motor dysfunction refers to a lack or delay in the area of the brain that speech is formed and created and communicated to the mouth and tongue. 


While speech may be the only concern, this disorder can be highlighted with feeding issues as well. The many other causes of speech delay include autism spectrum disorders, Auditory Processing Disorder, prematurity, and hearing loss.  Children with these disorders will often show early signs and are at times identified as “at risk” when the speech delay is diagnosed.



1 Reposted from Wikipedia

Speech Therapy for Toddlers

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What is Apraxia of Speech? 1


Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual's ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech ability. In adults, the disorder is caused by illness or injury, while the cause of AOS in children is unknown. Like other apraxias, AOS affects volitional (willful or purposeful) as well as automatic movement patterns. Individuals with this disorder have difficulty connecting speech messages from the brain to the mouth.  


The disorder can be divided into two specific types: acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) and childhood apraxia of speech (CAS).  Childhood apraxia of speech is an inability to utilize motor planning to perform movements necessary for speech during a child's language learning process. Although the age of onset differs between the two forms, the main characteristics and treatments are similar.


1 Reposted from Wikipedia

Self-Help Speech Therapy Books

Speech Intelligibility Expectations *


 Intelligibility Level

 19-24 months

 25% to 50%

 2-3 years

 50% to 75%

 4-5 years

 75% to 90%

 5+ years

 90% to 100%

* Pena-Brooks, Adriana & Hedge, M.N. (2007).  Assessment and treatment of articulation and phonological disorders in children (2nd Edition). Autsin, TX:  PRO-ED.
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Effects of a Speech Delay 1


Studies show that children diagnosed with speech delay are more likely to present with behavioral and social emotional problems both in childhood and as adults. Decreased receptive language, reading, and learning skills are common side effects for children that suffer from a speech delay and do not receive adequate intervention.


Similar studies suggest that children with speech delays are more likely to have a difficult time communicating and bonding with peers, which could have negative effects on their psychosocial health later in life.


1 Reposted from Wikipedia

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Childhood Apraxia

of Speech


"Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurological childhood (pediatric) speech sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits (e.g., abnormal reflexes, abnormal tone). CAS may occur as a result of known neurological impairment, in association with complex neurobehavioral disorders of known or unknown origin, or as an idiopathic neurogenic speech sound disorder. The core impairment in planning and/or programming spatiotemporal parameters of movement sequences results in errors in speech sound production and prosody."


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children (2007)


 "Childhood Apraxia of Speech (Technical Report)" (pdf). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children (2007).

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